Skip to content
Supplement Ingredients

Alternative Ingredients for Immune and Respiratory Support

Fact Checked
Written by
Medically reviewed by
Dr. Alex Keller, ND

Last updated: November 30, 2020

Now more than ever, practitioners and patients are focusing on natural supplements for immune system support to counteract pathogens that cause respiratory tract infections, and modulate the immune and anti-inflammatory responses to these pathogens.

Unfortunately, some of the best supplements for immune system support, such as echinacea, vitamin C, zinc, elderberry, probiotics, and vitamin D, are in high demand, and at times, even difficult to find. However, there are many alternative natural ingredients that can be effectively used to fight off pathogens, support immunity, and treat symptoms of respiratory tract infections.

This article provides a high-level overview of respiratory tract infections, and several alternative natural supplements for immune system support that can be used to combat respiratory tract infections. These ingredients can support various pathological mechanisms that either combat pathological infection, or reduce the host’s physiological response to infection to ultimately reduce the severity of respiratory tract symptoms.

Please note that there are many more ingredients that can be used for immune and respiratory support that are not currently included in this article. Future editions will provide additional information on ingredients not currently covered in this version.

woman coughing into her elbow

There are many symptoms associated with respiratory tract infections, such as sore throat, cough, chills, fever, and headaches.

Pathogenesis and pathophysiology of respiratory tract infections

There are several origins (pathogenesis) and physiological outcomes (pathophysiology) related to respiratory tract infections.

Viruses are one of the most common causes of respiratory tract infections. The human rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus, parainfluenza virus and other viruses can result in respiratory infection in infect individuals of all health and age statuses. They may lead to a variety of acute airway conditions, or other disorders such as asthma, bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the common cold, the flu, or pneumonia to name a few. (72)

Respiratory tract infections are not only caused by viruses, however. Bacterial colonization is another means by which both upper respiratory infection and lower respiratory infection may occur. (91) Most commonly, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis are the bacteria involved in respiratory tract infections. (6)

The body’s response to the presence of pathogens like viruses or bacteria can lead to an overstimulation of the inflammatory response and immune system. The host’s immune and inflammatory hyper-response can cause a prolonged or more severe reaction to infection, leading to increased prevalence of symptoms associated with infection such as chills, coryza, cough, fever, headaches, myalgia, rhinorrhea, shortness of breath, sneezing, sore throat, sputum production, wheezing, and occasional gastrointestinal complications such as nausea or vomiting. These symptoms typically depend on the specific pathogen and can ultimately lead to the damaging of respiratory tract damage. (66)

Two of the most well known causes of respiratory tract infections involve viruses that cause the common cold and influenza. Several symptoms of cold and flu respiratory system infections are shown below.

The table above provides a comparison of the symptoms of allergies, the common cold, and the flu. The references for this table are listed in the section titled “References for Table 1”, below.

Alternative ingredients for immune system and respiratory system support

Numerous ingredients provide a variety of pharmacological actions that may physiologically increase the body’s ability to fight off pathogens that cause symptoms of the respiratory tract, or the development of more severe respiratory conditions. These ingredients can also provide relief from the symptoms associated with infections of the respiratory tract.

For reference, the American Botanical Council (ABC), one of the leading sources for information on botanical and alternative medicine, has amassed terminology related to natural ingredient actions and their properties.

The terms that apply to the mechanistic uses of natural ingredients relating to the counteraction of respiratory pathogens and the reduction of symptoms caused by respiratory tract infections are summarized here:

The following figure summarizes some of the main uses of several natural ingredients and their main mechanistic applications in immunity and respiratory support.

The main uses were selected based on a mix of available human, in vivo and in vitro evidence, and/or a history of reported traditional use in respiratory conditions. The table at the end of this article presents more detail on the evidence supporting the main uses of these ingredients.

The primary uses of several ingredients for immune and respiratory support are shown in the figure above.

Disclaimer: The ingredients listed below and in the diagram are categorized based on a main mechanism of action within the respiratory system. However, they may have more than one application within and outside of the respiratory system. The main actions were selected based on a combination of available evidence and based on knowledge obtained from the ingredient’s traditional history of medicinal use as reviewed by Fullscript’s Integrative Medical Advisory Team.

For an explanation of the classes of evidence as shown below (A, B, C, D, E, and F), please see the Rating Scales for Evidence-Based Decision Support.


The following ingredients may be used in applications related to mucosal inflammation in the head and neck.

Andrographis (Andrographis paniculata)

  • Reduces the overall symptoms of upper respiratory tract infections, particularly for cough and sore throats – A (10)(40)(50)(73)
  • Reduces severity and duration of other symptoms of the common cold, such as chills, earaches, fatigue, headaches, muscle soreness, and rhinitis – B (8)(28)(36)(63)(64)(79)(94)(103)
  • Traditionally used to treat infectious diseases, which may translate to the reduction of catarrh – F (10)(40)(50)

Essential oils

  • Nasal drops or inhaled: reduce rhinitis symptoms including congestion, runny nose, sneezing, mucosal edema, pallor, and peripheral eosinophil counts – C/D (47)(114)
  • Traditionally used for their healing properties, with many applications in catarrhal diseases – F (22)

Propolis (Apis mellifera)

  • Reduces rhinitis symptoms within ~4 days and resolution of infectious rhinovirus symptoms by ~4-5th day – D (61)(100)
  • Reduces incidence of acute/chronic symptoms of rhinopharyngitis, and presence of viral microflora in upper airways – D (11)
  • Traditionally used primarily for its anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory properties, (7) which may translate into its use in infections of the upper respiratory tract – F (123)

Sage (Salvia officinalis)

  • Reduces sore throat symptoms with similar efficacy to chlorhexidine/lidocaine sprays – B (42)(81)
  • Traditionally used to relieve oral and throat inflammation – F (107)


The following ingredients may be used to reduce inflammation in response to pathogenic infection.

Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium)

  • Reduces epithelial, basal membrane, & subepithelial smooth muscle thickness (histologic parameters in asthmatic lung), and IL-4 inflammatory marker in vivoD (5)
  • Reduces inflammatory cell infiltration, airway permeability, production of inflammatory cytokines, and stimulation of NF-κB phosphorylation that leads to acute lung injury in vivo & in vitroD/E (43)
  • Reduces 5-LOX, PDE3 & PDE4 inflammatory enzymes activities, release of macrophage NO, PGE(2), & TNF-ɑ, and human PBMC TNF-ɑ, IL-2, IL-4, & IFN-γ in vitroE (96)
  • Traditionally used in inflammatory conditions – F (69)

Honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica)

  • Increases IL-10 anti-inflammatory cytokine in vivoD (46)
  • Reduces NF-κB phosphorylation to prevent lung expression of PGE2, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in response to inflammatory stimuli in vivoD (46)(70)(102)
  • Traditionally used to treat conditions related to inflammation and infection – F (54)

Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra, Glycyrrhiza uralensis)

  • Reduces neutrophil infiltration causing reduced TNF-α, & IL-1β release, and consequential neutrophil recruitment to provide antioxidative activity in the lung in vivoD (116)
  • Reduces COX-2, NO, TNF-α, ICAM-1 in vivoD (121)
  • Traditionally used in the treatment of inflammatory conditions including those of the respiratory tract like sore throats, cough, or asthma – F (21)
licorice root in a wooden bowl

Traditional uses of licorice include the treatment of sore throats, cough, and asthma. (18)


The following ingredients may be used in applications related to the opposition of microbes such as bacteria or viruses that cause respiratory distress.

Artemisia (Artemisia asiatica, Artemisia capillaris, Artemisia rupestris, Artemisia scoparia, Artemisia vestita)

  • Reduces microbial respiratory pathogens in vivo and in vitroD/E (41)(118)(119)
  • Increases humoral & cellular immune response to influenza vaccination in vivoD (125)
  • Reduces influenza A replication in vitroE (68)(117)(126)
  • Traditionally used to prevent or treat pathogenic infections due to its species-wide anti-bacterial and anti-viral properties, with special applications in malaria – F (51)

Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra, Glycyrrhiza inflata, Glycyrrhiza uralensis)

  • Increases humoral & cellular immune response to influenza vaccination in vivoD (1)
  • Increases protection against influenza inoculation, or INF-γ production from T cells, & inhibition of neuraminidase (viral replication enzyme) in response to influenza virus in vivo and in vitro D/E (14)(33)(56)(93)(106)(111)
  • Reduces human respiratory syncytial virus mainly via inoculation prevention. If inoculated, may stimulate INF-β for viral inhibition in vitroE (19)(26)(109)
  • Exhibits broad anti-viral properties against herpes, HIV, hepatitis, and influenza viruses – F (74)
  • Traditionally used in many diseases including respiratory disorders due to its anti-microbial and anti-parasitic properties – F (21)


  • Reduces prevalence of A/H1N1 virus influenza, the frequency of influenza-like symptomatic episodes, symptom severity, and duration of infection – B (15)

Propolis (Apis mellifera)

  • Reduces presence of viral microflora in upper airways – D (11)
  • Increases survival via influenza clearance from induction of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) mRNA in vivoD (101)
  • Reduces influenza hemagglutinin mRNA in vivo and in vitroD/E (86)(101)(105)
  • Reduces influenza presence in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid similarly to oseltamivir in vivoD (89)
  • Broad anti-bacterial activity for S. aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, S. pyogenes, S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, Enterococcus spp., E. coli, P. mirabilis, & P. aeruginosa, and broad anti-viral activity against adenovirus, influenza, parainfluenza, & herpes type 1 viruses in vitroE (20)(31)
  • Traditionally used for its anti-infectious and anti-inflammatory properties – F (7)


The following ingredients may be used in applications related to the improvement of breathing (lung function), particularly induced by airway spasms or constriction.

Elecampane (Inula helenium, Inula japonica)

  • Reduces NF-κB, ERK, and Akt pathway to reduce pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, & IL-6, and consequential lung injury (lung edema, thickening of the alveolar wall, and inflammatory cell infiltration) in vivo; activates Nrf2 pathway – D (18)(122)
  • Reduces IgE & Th2 cytokines counts and infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, airway hyperresponsiveness, and mucus hypersecretion in asthma in vivoD (71)
  • Traditionally used in respiratory conditions such as bronchitis and cough caused by inflammation or bacteria – F (85)

Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus)

  • Increases lung function – B (112)(113)
  • Reduces shortness of breath, & exacerbation frequency/severity in asthma or COPD – B (112)(113)
  • Reduces need for adjunct glucocorticosteroids – C (45)
  • Reduces bronchiolitis severity, mucin hypersecretion, and inflammatory cell infiltration bronchoalveolar fluid in vivoD (58)
  • Traditionally used in the improvement of airway function by relaxing respiratory muscles and to cause expulsion of mucus – F (17)

Horehound (Marrubium vulgare)

  • Traditionally used in conditions of the airways like bronchitis, asthma, and cough – F (65)(75)

Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis, Hyssopus cuspidatus)

  • Reduces leukotriene secretion to halt bronchoconstriction in vivoD (27)
  • Modulates transcription for Th1, Th2 and Th17 differentiation in asthmatic inflammation in vivoD (108)
  • Traditionally used to treat asthma – F (44)

Ivy (Hedera helix)

  • Increases respiratory function in bronchial asthma particularly as adjunctive therapy – A (38)(124)
  • Reduces bronchitis symptoms severity – B (12)(24)(80)(82)
  • Traditionally used in conditions of the respiratory tract with properties that relax airway musculature and expel mucus – F (92)

Lobelia (Lobelia inflata)

  • Traditionally used to promote pulmonary ventilation and used in respiratory disorders. May favor use as an expectorant in the presence of mucus hypersecretion. Note: High doses can produce coughF (97)

Thyme (Thymus vulgaris)

  • Reduces bronchitis symptoms severity in use with other herbal combinations such as ivy, thyme, and primrose – B (42)(35)(48)(59)(62)
  • Increases B2-adrenergic receptor stimulation to cause airway relaxation in vivoD (87)
  • Traditionally used in many applications of respiratory disorders of the bronchi, asthma, coughing and mucus expulsion – F (77)

Yarrow (Achillea millefolium)

  • Increases airway relaxation via B2-adrenergic receptor stimulation, calcium-channel or histamine receptor blockades, or inhibition of muscarinic receptors in vivo and in vitroD/E (4)(25)(49)(52)(87)
  • Traditionally used in respiratory disorders through bronchodilation and anti-inflammatory properties – F (2)
hyssop in plant form on a wooden spoon

Research has shown that hyssop may produce anti-spasmodic effects. (23)(34)(84)


The following ingredients may be used in applications related to reduce or prevent coughing.

Black cherry (Prunus serotina)

  • Traditionally used to treat cough – F (30)

Ivy (Hedera helix)

  • Reduces URTI symptoms, particularly cough – A (12)(24)(39)(80)(82)(84)
  • Traditionally used in conditions of the respiratory tract particularly with cough – F (92)

Tussilago (Tussilago Farfara)

  • Reduces cough with additional expectorant and anti-inflammatory properties in vivoD (55)(115)(120)
  • Traditionally used to treat cough in respiratory conditions – F (53)


The following ingredients may be used in applications related to relieving inflamed mucus membranes via coverage with polysaccharide-rich substances.

Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra)

  • Traditionally used as a demulcent with possible stimulatory actions on tracheal mucous secretion – F (13)

Marshmallow (Althaea officinalis)

  • Reduces dry, ACE inhibitor-induced cough – B (76)
  • Reduces cough reflex in vivoD (98)(99)
  • Increases bioadhesive layers to promote cell vitality and proliferation in healing of irritated mucous membranes in vitroE (16)
  • Traditionally used for its polysaccharides that soothe irritated mucous membranes, and reduce cough – F (60)

Plantago (Plantago lanceolata, Plantago major)

  • Plantago polysaccharides show adhesion to epithelial tissues ex vivo, which may contribute to its demulcent actions on irritated mucous membranes – D (83)
  • Traditionally used to soothe throat inflammation; demulcent effects demonstrated in the GI tract might generalize to tissues of the airway – F (23)(78)

Slippery elm (Ulmus rubra)

  • Traditionally used for its polysaccharides that soothe mucosal inflammation and alleviate sensations signaling the need to cough – F (110)


The following ingredients may be used in applications related to the induction of perspiration.

Boneset (Eupatorium perfoliatum)

  • Traditionally used as a diaphoretic in the treatment of fever and colds – F (37)

Ginger (Zingiber officinale)

  • Traditionally used as a diaphoretic to eliminate colds – F (88)


The following ingredients may be used in applications related to the removal of hypersecretions of mucus.

Horehound (Marrubium vulgare)

  • Traditionally used as an expectorant – F (75)

Mullein (Verbascum thapsus)

  • Traditionally used for its properties as an expectorant to provide relief in respiratory conditions – F (104)


  • Increases prevention of airway obstruction and inflammation in chronic bronchitis or COPD – A (9)
  • Reduces symptoms including cough, sputum, labored breathing – A (9)(32)(95)

Thyme (Thymus vulgaris)

  • Reduces bronchitis symptoms severity when used in combination with other herbs such as ivy, thyme, and primrose – B (42)(35)(48)(59)(62)
  • Reduces hypersecretion of mucus by reducing the secretion of mucin 5AC proteins and inflammation in combination with primula in vivo and in vitroD/E (67)(90)
  • Traditionally used to improve mucus expulsion in asthma, cough and respiratory conditions of the bronchi – F (77)


The following ingredients may be used in applications related to the reduction of fever.

Andrographis (Andrographis paniculata)

  • Reduces body temperatures and fever in patients with upper respiratory tract infections, such as pharyngotonsillitis – B (28)(79)(103)
  • Traditionally used to treat fever – F (10)(50)

Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium)

  • Traditionally used to treat fever – F (69)

Honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica)

  • Reduce internal temperature in vivoD (29)(57)
  • Traditionally used to treat fever via its anti-inflammatory effects – F (54)

The bottom line

In addition to the more common natural ingredients that provide immune support like echinacea, elderberry, vitamin C, vitamin D, and zinc, there are numerous alternative immune-modulating and respiratory system support ingredients that practitioners and patients can consider.

These ingredients may be used as a means to counteract pathogens like bacteria and viruses, or in the treatment of respiratory symptoms and more serious respiratory conditions related to pathogenic infection.

Note: this reference document and the associated infographic will continue to evolve, so check back often for updates.

Fullscript simplifies supplement dispensing.

Create your dispensary today I'm a patient
New product feature

Spread wellness
further with all-new
shareable protocols.

Learn more!
  1. Alexyuk, P. G., Bogoyavlenskiy, A. P., Alexyuk, M. S., Turmagambetova, A. S., Zaitseva, I. A., Omirtaeva, E. S., & Berezin, V. E. (2019). Adjuvant activity of multimolecular complexes based on Glycyrrhiza glabra saponins, lipids, and influenza virus glycoproteins. Archives of Virology, 164(7), 1793-1803.
  2. Ali, S. I., Gopalakrishnan, B., & Venkatesalu, V. (2017). Pharmacognosy, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of Achillea millefolium L.: A review. Phytotherapy Research, 31(8), 1140-1161.
  3. American Botanical Council. (N.D). Terminology. Retrieved from
  4. Arias-Durán, L., Estrada-Soto, S., Hernández-Morales, M., Chávez-Silva, F., Navarrete-Vázquez, G., León-Rivera, I., … & Ibarra-Barajas, M. (2020). Tracheal relaxation through calcium channel blockade of Achillea millefolium hexanic extract and its main bioactive compounds. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 253, 112643.
  5. Arıkan-Ayyıldız, Z., Karaman, M., Özbal, S., Bağrıyanık, A., Yilmaz, O., Karaman, Ö., & Uzuner, N. (2017). Efficacy of parthenolide on lung histopathology in a murine model of asthma. Allergologia et Immunopathologia, 45(1), 63-68.
  6. Bosch, A. A., Biesbroek, G., Trzcinski, K., Sanders, E. A., & Bogaert, D. (2013). Viral and bacterial interactions in the upper respiratory tract. PLoS Pathog, 9(1), e1003057.
  7. Braakhuis, A. (2019). Evidence on the health benefits of supplemental propolis. Nutrients, 11(11), 2705.
  8. Caceres, D. D., Hancke, J. L., Burgos, R. A., Sandberg, F., & Wikman, G. K. (1999). Use of visual analogue scale measurements (VAS) to asses the effectiveness of standardized Andrographis paniculata extract SHA-10 in reducing the symptoms of common cold. A randomized double blind-placebo study. Phytomedicine, 6(4), 217-223.
  9. Cazzola, M., Calzetta, L., Page, C., Jardim, J., Chuchalin, A. G., Rogliani, P., & Matera, M. G. (2015). Influence of N-acetylcysteine on chronic bronchitis or COPD exacerbations: A meta-analysis. European Respiratory Review, 24(137), 451-461.
  10. Coon, J. T., & Ernst, E. (2004). Andrographis paniculata in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections: A systematic review of safety and efficacy. Planta Medica, 70(4), 293-298.
  11. Crişan, I., Zaharia, C. N., Popovici, F., Jucu, V., Belu, O., Dascălu, C., … & Petrescu, A. (1995). Natural propolis extract Nivcrisol in the treatment of acute and chronic rhinopharyngitis in children. Romanian Journal of Virology, 46(3-4), 115-133.
  12. Cwientzek, U., Ottillinger, B., & Arenberger, P. (2011). Acute bronchitis therapy with ivy leaves extracts in a two-arm study. A double-blind, randomised study vs. an other ivy leaves extract. Phytomedicine, 18(13), 1105-1109.
  13. Damle, M. (2014). Glycyrrhiza glabra (Liquorice)-a potent medicinal herb. International Journal of Herbal Medicine, 2(2), 132-136.
  14. Dao, T. T., Nguyen, P. H., Lee, H. S., Kim, E., Park, J., Lim, S. I., & Oh, W. K. (2011). Chalcones as novel influenza A (H1N1) neuraminidase inhibitors from Glycyrrhiza inflata. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 21(1), 294-298.
  15. De Flora, S., Grassi, C., & Carati, L. (1997). Attenuation of influenza-like symptomatology and improvement of cell-mediated immunity with long-term N-acetylcysteine treatment. European Respiratory Journal, 10(7), 1535-1541.
  16. Deters, A., Zippel, J., Hellenbrand, N., Pappai, D., Possemeyer, C., & Hensel, A. (2010). Aqueous extracts and polysaccharides from Marshmallow roots (Althea officinalis L.): Cellular internalisation and stimulation of cell physiology of human epithelial cells in vitro. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 127(1), 62-69.
  17. Dhakad, A. K., Pandey, V. V., Beg, S., Rawat, J. M., & Singh, A. (2018). Biological, medicinal and toxicological significance of Eucalyptus leaf essential oil: A review. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 98(3), 833-848.
  18. Ding, Y. H., Song, Y. D., Wu, Y. X., He, H. Q., Yu, T. H., Hu, Y. D., … & Sun, L. (2019). Isoalantolactone suppresses LPS-induced inflammation by inhibiting TRAF6 ubiquitination and alleviates acute lung injury. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 40(1), 64-74.
  19. Dong, Y., Li, H., Yao, Z., Tian, W., Han, Z., Qiu, H., & Piao, Y. (2004). The anti-respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) effect of Radix glycyrrhizae in vitro. Journal of Chinese Medicinal Materials, 27(6), 425-427.
  20. Drago, L., De Vecchi, E., Nicola, L., & Gismondo, M. R. (2007). In vitro antimicrobial activity of a novel propolis formulation (Actichelated propolis). Journal of Applied Microbiology, 103(5), 1914-1921.
  21. El-Saber Batiha, G., Magdy Beshbishy, A., El-Mleeh, A., Abdel-Daim, M. M., & Prasad Devkota, H. (2020). Traditional uses, bioactive chemical constituents, and pharmacological and toxicological activities of Glycyrrhiza glabra L.(Fabaceae). Biomolecules, 10(3), 352.
  22. Elshafie, H. S., & Camele, I. (2017). An overview of the biological effects of some mediterranean essential oils on human health. BioMed Research International, 2017, 9268468.
  23. Farshchi, M. K., Azad, F. J., Salari, R., Mirsadraee, M., & Anushiravani, M. (2017). A viewpoint on the leaky gut syndrome to treat allergic asthma: A novel opinion. Journal of Evidence-based Complementary & Alternative medicine, 22(3), 378-380.
  24. Fazio, S., Pouso, J., Dolinsky, D., Fernandez, A., Hernandez, M., Clavier, G., & Hecker, M. (2009). Tolerance, safety and efficacy of Hedera helix extract in inflammatory bronchial diseases under clinical practice conditions: a prospective, open, multicentre postmarketing study in 9657 patients. Phytomedicine, 16(1), 17-24.
  25. Feizpour, A., Boskabady, M. H., Byrami, G., Golamnezhad, Z., & Shafei, M. N. (2013). The effect of hydro-ethanolic extract of Achillea millefolium on muscarinic receptors of guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle. Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 45(1), 13-17.
  26. Feng Yeh, C., Wang, K. C., Chiang, L. C., Shieh, D. E., Yen, M. H., & San Chang, J. (2013). Water extract of licorice had anti-viral activity against human respiratory syncytial virus in human respiratory tract cell lines. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 148(2), 466-473.
  27. Furukawa, M., Makino, M., Ohkoshi, E., Uchiyama, T., & Fujimoto, Y. (2011). Terpenoids and phenethyl glucosides from Hyssopus cuspidatus (Labiatae). Phytochemistry, 72(17), 2244-2252.
  28. Gabrielian, E. S., Shukarian, A. K., Goukasova, G. I., Chandanian, G. L., Panossian, A. G., Wikman, G., & Wagner, H. (2002). A double blind, placebo-controlled study of Andrographis paniculata fixed combination Kan Jang in the treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infections including sinusitis. Phytomedicine, 9(7), 589-597.
  29. Gao, R., Lin, Y., Liang, G., Yu, B., & Gao, Y. (2014). Comparative pharmacokinetic study of chlorogenic acid after oral administration of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Shuang‐Huang‐Lian in normal and febrile rats. Phytotherapy Research, 28(1), 144-147.
  30. García-Aguilar, L., Rojas-Molina, A., Ibarra-Alvarado, C., Rojas-Molina, J. I., Vázquez-Landaverde, P. A., Luna-Vázquez, F. J., & Zavala-Sánchez, M. A. (2015). Nutritional value and volatile compounds of black cherry (Prunus serotina) seeds. Molecules, 20(2), 3479-3495.
  31. Governa, P., Cusi, M. G., Borgonetti, V., Sforcin, J. M., Terrosi, C., Baini, G., … & Biagi, M. (2019). Beyond the biological effect of a chemically characterized poplar propolis: Antibacterial and antiviral activity and comparison with flurbiprofen in cytokines release by LPS-stimulated human mononuclear cells. Biomedicines, 7(4), 73.
  32. Grandjean, E. M., Berthet, P., Ruffmann, R., & Leuenberger, P. (2000). Efficacy of oral long-term N-acetylcysteine in chronic bronchopulmonary disease: A meta-analysis of published double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials. Clinical Therapeutics, 22(2), 209-221.
  33. Grienke, U., Braun, H., Seidel, N., Kirchmair, J., Richter, M., Krumbholz, A., … & Rollinger, J. M. (2014). Computer-guided approach to access the anti-influenza activity of licorice constituents. Journal of Natural Products, 77(3), 563-570.
  34. Gruenwald, J., Graubaum, H. J., & Busch, R. (2005). Efficacy and tolerability of a fixed combination of thyme and primrose root in patients with acute bronchitis. Arzneimittelforschung, 55(11), 669-676.
  35. Gruenwald, J., Graubaum, H. J., & Busch, R. (2006). Evaluation of the non-inferiority of a fixed combination of thyme fluid-and primrose root extract in comparison to a fixed combination of thyme fluid extract and primrose root tincture in patients with acute bronchitis. Arzneimittelforschung, 56(08), 574-581.
  36. Hancke, J., Burgos, R., Caceres, D., & Wikman, G. (1995). A double‐blind study with a new monodrug Kan Jang: Decrease of symptoms and improvement in the recovery from common colds. Phytotherapy Research, 9(8), 559-562.
  37. Hensel, A., Maas, M., Sendker, J., Lechtenberg, M., Petereit, F., Deters, A., … & Stark, T. (2011). Eupatorium perfoliatum L.: Phytochemistry, traditional use and current applications. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 138(3), 641-651.
  38. Hofmann, D., Hecker, M., & Völp, A. (2003). Efficacy of dry extract of ivy leaves in children with bronchial asthma–a review of randomized controlled trials. Phytomedicine, 10(2-3), 213-220.
  39. Holzinger, F., & Chenot, J. F. (2011). Systematic review of clinical trials assessing the effectiveness of ivy leaf (hedera helix) for acute upper respiratory tract infections. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2011, 382789.
  40. Hu, X. Y., Wu, R. H., Logue, M., Blondel, C., Lai, L. Y. W., Stuart, B., … & Liu, J. P. (2017). Andrographis paniculata (Chuān Xīn Lián) for symptomatic relief of acute respiratory tract infections in adults and children: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PloS One, 12(8), e0181780.
  41. Huang, J., Qian, C., Xu, H., & Huang, Y. (2018). Antibacterial activity of Artemisia asiatica essential oil against some common respiratory infection causing bacterial strains and its mechanism of action in Haemophilus influenzae. Microbial Pathogenesis, 114, 470-475.
  42. Hubbert, M., Sievers, H., Lehnfeld, R., & Kehrl, W. (2006). Efficacy and tolerability of a spray with Salvia officinalis in the treatment of acute pharyngitis-a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with adaptive design and interim analysis. European Journal of Medical Research, 11(1), 20-26.
  43. Jang, Y. J., Back, M. J., Fu, Z., Lee, J. H., Won, J. H., Ha, H. C., … & Kim, D. K. (2016). Protective effect of sesquiterpene lactone parthenolide on LPS-induced acute lung injury. Archives of Pharmacal Research, 39(12), 1716-1725.
  44. Javadi, B., Sahebkar, A., & Ahmad Emami, S. (2017). Medicinal plants for the treatment of asthma: A traditional persian medicine perspective. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 23(11), 1623-1632.
  45. Juergens, U. R., Dethlefsen, U., Steinkamp, G., Gillissen, A., Repges, R., & Vetter, H. (2003). Anti-inflammatory activity of 1.8-cineol (eucalyptol) in bronchial asthma: A double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Respiratory Medicine, 97(3), 250-256.
  46. Kao, S. T., Liu, C. J., & Yeh, C. C. (2015). Protective and immunomodulatory effect of flos Lonicerae japonicae by augmenting IL-10 expression in a murine model of acute lung inflammation. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 168, 108-115.
  47. Katona, G., Sultész, M., Farkas, Z., Gyimesi, A., Hirschberg, A., Huszka, J., … & Ablonczy, M. (2015). Treatment of acute rhinitis with a nasal spray containing tramazoline and essential oils: A multicenter, uncontrolled, observational trial. Clinical and Translational Allergy, 5(1), 38.
  48. Kemmerich, B., Eberhardt, R., & Stammer, H. (2006). Efficacy and tolerability of a fluid extract combination of thyme herb and ivy leaves and matched placebo in adults suffering from acute bronchitis with productive cough. Arzneimittelforschung, 56(09), 652-660.
  49. Khan, A. U., & Gilani, A. H. (2011). Blood pressure lowering, cardiovascular inhibitory and bronchodilatory actions of Achillea millefolium. Phytotherapy Research, 25(4), 577-583.
  50. Kligler, B., Ulbricht, C., Basch, E., Kirkwood, C. D., Abrams, T. R., Miranda, M., … & Woods, J. (2006). Andrographis paniculata for the treatment of upper respiratory infection: A systematic review by the natural standard research collaboration. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing, 1(2), 25-29.
  51. Koul, B., Taak, P., Kumar, A., Khatri, T., & Sanyal, I. (2018). The Artemisia genus: A review on traditional uses, phytochemical constituents, pharmacological properties and germplasm conservation. Journal of Glycomics & Lipidomics, 7, 1-7.
  52. Koushyar, H., Koushyar, M. M., Byrami, G., Feizpour, A., Golamnezhad, Z., & Boskabady, M. H. (2013). The effect of hydroethanol extract of Achillea millefolium on β-adrenoceptors of guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 75(4), 400-405.
  53. Li, J., Zhang, Z. Z., Lei, Z. H., Qin, X. M., & Li, Z. Y. (2018). NMR based metabolomic comparison of the antitussive and expectorant effect of Farfarae Flos collected at different stages. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 150, 377-385.
  54. Li, Y., Li, W., Fu, C., Song, Y., & Fu, Q. (2019). Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos: A systematic review of ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and pharmacology. Phytochemistry Reviews, 1-61.
  55. Li, Z. Y., Zhi, H. J., Xue, S. Y., Sun, H. F., Zhang, F. S., Jia, J. P., … & Qin, X. M. (2012). Metabolomic profiling of the flower bud and rachis of Tussilago farfara with antitussive and expectorant effects on mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 140(1), 83-90.
  56. Liang, S., Li, M., Yu, X., Jin, H., Zhang, Y., Zhang, L., … & Xiao, S. (2019). Synthesis and structure-activity relationship studies of water-soluble β-cyclodextrin-glycyrrhetinic acid conjugates as potential anti-influenza virus agents. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 166, 328-338.
  57. Lu, H., Zhang, L., & Huang, H. (2015). Study on the isolation of active constituents in Lonicera japonica and the mechanism of their anti-upper respiratory tract infection action in children. African Health Sciences, 15(4), 1295-1301.
  58. Lu, X. Q., Tang, F. D., Wang, Y., Zhao, T., & Bian, R. L. (2004). Effect of Eucalyptus globulus oil on lipopolysaccharide-induced chronic bronchitis and mucin hypersecretion in rats. China journal of Chinese Materia Medica, 29(2), 168-171.
  59. Ludwig, S., Stier, H., & Weykam, S. (2016). Evaluation of blood alcohol concentrations after oral administration of a fixed combination of thyme herb and primrose root fluid extract to children with acute bronchitis. Drug Research, 66(02), 69-73.
  60. Mahboubi, M. (2019). Marsh mallow (Althaea officinalis L.) and its potency in the treatment of cough. Complementary medicine research, 1-9.
  61. Marti, J., López, F., Gascón, I., & Julve, J. (2017). Propolis nasal spray effectively improves recovery from infectious acute rhinitis and common cold symptoms in children: A pilot study. Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents, 31(4), 943-950.
  62. Marzian, O. (2007). Treatment of acute bronchitis in children and adolescents. Non-interventional postmarketing surveillance study confirms the benefit and safety of a syrup made of extracts from thyme and ivy leaves. MMW Fortschritte der Medizin, 149(27-28 Suppl), 69-74.
  63. Melchior, J., Palm, S., & Wikman, G. (1997). Controlled clinical study of standardized Andrographis paniculata extract in common cold—a pilot trial. Phytomedicine, 3(4), 315-318.
  64. Melchior, J., Spasov, A. A., Ostrovskij, O. V., Bulanov, A. E., & Wikman, G. (2000). Double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot and phase III study of activity of standardized Andrographis paniculata Herba Nees extract fixed combination (Kan jang) in the treatment of uncomplicated upper-respiratory tract infection. Phytomedicine, 7(5), 341-350.
  65. Morteza-Semnani, K., & Ghanbarimasir, Z. (2019). A review on traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of the genus ballota. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 233, 197-217.
  66. Newton, A. H., Cardani, A., & Braciale, T. J. (2016). The host immune response in respiratory virus infection: Balancing virus clearance and immunopathology. Seminars in Immunopathology38(4), 471-482.
  67. Oliviero, M., Romilde, I., Beatrice, M. M., Matteo, V., Giovanna, N., Consuelo, A., … & Massimo, N. (2016). Evaluations of thyme extract effects in human normal bronchial and tracheal epithelial cell lines and in human lung cancer cell line. Chemico-biological Interactions, 256, 125-133.
  68. Obul, M., Wang, X., Zhao, J., Li, G., Aisa, H. A., & Huang, G. (2019). Structural modification on rupestonic acid leads to highly potent inhibitors against influenza virus. Molecular Diversity, 23(1), 1-9.
  69. Pareek, A., Suthar, M., Rathore, G. S., & Bansal, V. (2011). Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.): A systematic review. Pharmacognosy Reviews, 5(9), 103-110.
  70. Park, Y. C., Jin, M., Kim, S. H., Kim, M. H., Namgung, U., & Yeo, Y. (2014). Effects of inhalable microparticle of flower of Lonicera japonica in a mouse model of COPD. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 151(1), 123-130.
  71. Park, Y. N., Lee, Y. J., Choi, J. H., Jin, M., Yang, J. H., Li, Y., … & Chang, H. W. (2011). Alleviation of OVA-induced airway inflammation by flowers of Inula japonica in a murine model of asthma. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, 75(5), 871-876.
  72. Pawełczyk, M., & Kowalski, M. L. (2017). The role of human parainfluenza virus infections in the immunopathology of the respiratory tract. Current Allergy and Asthma Reports, 17(3), 16.
  73. Poolsup, N., Suthisisang, C., Prathanturarug, S., Asawamekin, A., & Chanchareon, U. (2004). Andrographis paniculata in the symptomatic treatment of uncomplicated upper respiratory tract infection: Systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics, 29(1), 37-45.
  74. Pu, J. Y., He, L., Wu, S. Y., Zhang, P., & Huang, X. (2013). Anti-virus research of triterpenoids in licorice. Chinese Journal of Virology, 29(6), 673-679.
  75. Rodríguez Villanueva, J., & Martín Esteban, J. (2016). An insight into a blockbuster phytomedicine; Marrubium vulgare L. herb. More of a myth than a reality?. Phytotherapy Research, 30(10), 1551-1558.
  76. Rouhi, H., & Ganji, F. (2007). Effect of Althaea officinalis on cough associated with ACE inhibitors. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 6(3), 256-258.
  77. Salehi, B., Mishra, A. P., Shukla, I., Sharifi‐Rad, M., Contreras, M. D. M., Segura‐Carretero, A., … & Sharifi‐Rad, J. (2018). Thymol, thyme, and other plant sources: Health and potential uses. Phytotherapy Research, 32(9), 1688-1706.
  78. Samuelsen, A. B. (2000). The traditional uses, chemical constituents and biological activities of Plantago major L. A review. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 71(1-2), 1-21.
  79. Saxena, R. C., Singh, R., Kumar, P., Yadav, S. C., Negi, M. P. S., Saxena, V. S., … & Amit, A. (2010). A randomized double blind placebo controlled clinical evaluation of extract of Andrographis paniculata (KalmCold™) in patients with uncomplicated upper respiratory tract infection. Phytomedicine, 17(3-4), 178-185.
  80. Schaefer, A., Kehr, M. S., Giannetti, B. M., Bulitta, M., & Staiger, C. (2016). A randomized, controlled, double-blind, multi-center trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a liquid containing ivy leaves dry extract (EA 575®) vs. placebo in the treatment of adults with acute cough. An International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 71(9), 504-509.
  81. Schapowal, A., Berger, D., Klein, P., & Suter, A. (2009). Echinacea/sage or chlorhexidine/lidocaine for treating acute sore throats: a randomized double-blind trial. European Journal of Medical Research, 14(9), 406-412.
  82. Schmidt, M., Thomsen, M., & Schmidt, U. (2012). Suitability of ivy extract for the treatment of paediatric cough. Phytotherapy Research, 26(12), 1942-1947.
  83. Schmidgall, J., Schnetz, E., & Hensel, A. (2000). Evidence for bioadhesive effects of polysaccharides and polysaccharide-containing herbs in an ex vivo bioadhesion assay on buccal membranes. Planta Medica, 66(1), 48-53.
  84. Schönknecht, K., Fal, A. M., Mastalerz-Migas, A., Joachimiak, M., & Doniec, Z. (2017). Efficacy of dry extract of ivy leaves in the treatment of productive cough. Wiadomosci lekarskie (Warsaw, Poland: 1960), 70(6 pt 1), 1026-1033.
  85. Seca, A. M., Grigore, A., Pinto, D. C., & Silva, A. M. (2014). The genus Inula and their metabolites: from ethnopharmacological to medicinal uses. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 154(2), 286-310.
  86. Serkedjieva, J., Manolova, N., & Bankova, V. (1992). Anti-influenza virus effect of some propolis constituents and their analogues (esters of substituted cinnamic acids). Journal of Natural Products, 55(3), 294-297.
  87. Shakeri, F., Ghorani, V., Saadat, S., Gholamnezhad, Z., & Boskabady, M. H. (2019). The stimulatory effects of medicinal plants on β2-adrenoceptors of tracheal smooth muscle. Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, 18(1), 12-26.
  88. Sharifi-Rad, M., Varoni, E. M., Salehi, B., Sharifi-Rad, J., Matthews, K. R., Ayatollahi, S. A., … & Sharifi-Rad, M. (2017). Plants of the genus Zingiber as a source of bioactive phytochemicals: From tradition to pharmacy. Molecules, 22(12), 2145.
  89. Shimizu, T., Hino, A., Tsutsumi, A., Park, Y. K., Watanabe, W., & Kurokawa, M. (2008). Anti-influenza virus activity of propolis in vitro and its efficacy against influenza infection in mice. Antiviral Chemistry and Chemotherapy, 19(1), 7-13.
  90. Siebel, J., Kryshen, K., Pongrácz, J. E., & Lehner, M. D. (2018). In vivo and in vitro investigation of anti-inflammatory and mucus-regulatory activities of a fixed combination of thyme and primula extracts. Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 51, 10-17.
  91. Siegel, S. J., & Weiser, J. N. (2015). Mechanisms of bacterial colonization of the respiratory tract. Annual Review of Microbiology, 69, 425-444.
  92. Song, K. J., Shin, Y. J., Lee, K. R., Lee, E. J., Suh, Y. S., & Kim, K. S. (2015). Expectorant and antitussive effect of Hedera helix and Rhizoma coptidis extracts mixture. Yonsei Medical Journal, 56(3), 819-824.
  93. Song, W., Si, L., Ji, S., Wang, H., Fang, X. M., Yu, L. Y., … & Ye, M. (2014). Uralsaponins M–Y, antiviral triterpenoid saponins from the roots of Glycyrrhiza uralensis. Journal of Natural Products, 77(7), 1632-1643.
  94. Spasov, A. A., Ostrovskij, O. V., Chernikov, M. V., & Wikman, G. (2004). Comparative controlled study of Andrographis paniculata fixed combination, Kan Jang® and an echinacea preparation as adjuvant, in the treatment of uncomplicated respiratory disease in children. Phytotherapy Research: An International Journal Devoted to Pharmacological and Toxicological Evaluation of Natural Product Derivatives, 18(1), 47-53.
  95. Stey, C., Steurer, J., Bachmann, S., Medici, T. C., & Tramer, M. R. (2000). The effect of oral N-acetylcysteine in chronic bronchitis: A quantitative systematic review. European Respiratory Journal, 16(2), 253-262.
  96. Sur, R., Martin, K., Liebel, F., Lyte, P., Shapiro, S., & Southall, M. (2009). Anti-inflammatory activity of parthenolide-depleted Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium). Inflammopharmacology, 17(1), 42-49.
  97. Stansbury, J., Saunders, P. R., & Zampieron, E. (2013). The use of lobelia in the treatment of asthma and respiratory illness. Journal of Restorative Medicine, 2(1), 94-100.
  98. Sutovska, M., Capek, P., Franova, S., Joskova, M., Sutovsky, J., Marcinek, J., & Kalman, M. (2011). Antitussive activity of Althaea officinalis L. polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan and its changes in guinea pigs with ovalbumine-induced airways inflammation. Bratislavské lekárske listy, 112(12), 670-675.
  99. Sutovska, M., Nosalova, G., Franova, S., & Kardosova, A. (2007). The antitussive activity of polysaccharides from Althaea officinalis l., var. Robusta, Arctium lappa L., var. Herkules, and Prunus persica L., Batsch. Bratislavske lekarske listy, 108(2), 93-99.
  100. Szmeja, Z., Kulczyński, B., Sosnowski, Z., & Konopacki, K. (1989). Therapeutic value of flavonoids in Rhinovirus infections. The Polish Otolaryngology, 43(3), 180-184.
  101. Takemura, T., Urushisaki, T., Fukuoka, M., Hosokawa-Muto, J., Hata, T., Okuda, Y., … & Kuwata, K. (2012). 3, 4-Dicaffeoylquinic acid, a major constituent of Brazilian propolis, increases TRAIL expression and extends the lifetimes of mice infected with the influenza A virus. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2012, 946867.
  102. Tang, Y., Yin, L., Zhang, Y., Huang, X., Zhao, F., Cui, X., … & Xu, L. (2016). Study on anti-inflammatory efficacy and correlative ingredients with pharmacodynamics detected in acute inflammation rat model serum from Caulis Lonicerae japonicae. Phytomedicine, 23(6), 597-610.
  103. Thamlikitkul, V., Dechatiwongse, T., Theerapong, S., Chantrakul, C., Boonroj, P., Punkrut W., … & Percharoen, S. (1991). Efficacy of Andrographis paniculata, Nees for pharyngotonsillitis in adults. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, 74(10), 437-442.
  104. Turker, A. U., & Gurel, E. (2005). Common mullein (Verbascum thapsus L.): Recent advances in research. Phytotherapy Research: An International Journal Devoted to Pharmacological and Toxicological Evaluation of Natural Product Derivatives, 19(9), 733-739.
  105. Urushisaki, T., Takemura, T., Tazawa, S., Fukuoka, M., Hosokawa-Muto, J., Araki, Y., & Kuwata, K. (2011). Caffeoylquinic acids are major constituents with potent anti-influenza effects in brazilian green propolis water extract. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2011, 254914.
  106. Utsunomiya, T., Kobayashi, M., Pollard, R. B., & Suzuki, F. (1997). Glycyrrhizin, an active component of licorice roots, reduces morbidity and mortality of mice infected with lethal doses of influenza virus. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 41(3), 551-556.
  107. Walch, S. G., Ngaba Tinzoh, L., Zimmermann, B. F., Stühlinger, W., & Lachenmeier, D. W. (2011). Antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic composition as quality indicators for aqueous infusions of Salvia officinalis L.(sage tea). Frontiers in Pharmacology, 2, 79.
  108. Wang, H. Y., Ding, J. B., Halmurat, U., Hou, M., Xue, Z. Q., Zhu, M., … & Ma, X. M. (2011). The effect of Uygur medicine Hyssopus officinalis L on expression of T-bet, GATA-3 and STAT-3 mRNA in lung tissue of asthma rats. Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 27(8), 876-879.
  109. Wang, X. Q., Li, H. Y., Liu, X. Y., Zhang, F. M., Li, X., Piao, Y. A., … & Chen, Z. H. (2006). The anti-respiratory syncytial virus effect of active compound of Glycyrrhiza GD4 in vitro. Journal of Chinese Medicinal Materials, 29(7), 692-694.
  110. Watts, C. R. (2012). Slippery elm, its biochemistry, and use as a complementary and alternative treatment for laryngeal irritation. American Journal of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology, 1(1), 17-23.
  111. Wolkerstorfer, A., Kurz, H., Bachhofner, N., & Szolar, O. H. (2009). Glycyrrhizin inhibits influenza A virus uptake into the cell. Antiviral Research, 83(2), 171-178.
  112. Worth, H., & Dethlefsen, U. (2012). Patients with asthma benefit from concomitant therapy with cineole: A placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Journal of Asthma, 49(8), 849-853.
  113. Worth, H., Schacher, C., & Dethlefsen, U. (2009). Concomitant therapy with cineole (Eucalyptole) reduces exacerbations in COPD: A placebo-controlled double-blind trial. Respiratory Research, 10(1), 69.
  114. Wu, M., Zhang, J., & Zhang, X. (2009). Clinical observation of Flos magnoliae volatile oil nano-liposome nasal drops in treating pediatric allergic rhinitis. Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine, 29(8), 740-742.
  115. Wu, Q. Z., Zhao, D. X., Xiang, J., Zhang, M., Zhang, C. F., & Xu, X. H. (2016). Antitussive, expectorant, and anti-inflammatory activities of four caffeoylquinic acids isolated from Tussilago farfara. Pharmaceutical Biology, 54(7), 1117-1124.
  116. Xie, Y. C., Dong, X. W., Wu, X. M., Yan, X. F., & Xie, Q. M. (2009). Inhibitory effects of flavonoids extracted from licorice on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute pulmonary inflammation in mice. International Immunopharmacology, 9(2), 194-200.
  117. Yan, H., Wang, H., Ma, L., Ma, X., Yin, J., Wu, S., … & Li, Y. (2018). Cirsimaritin inhibits influenza A virus replication by downregulating the NF-κB signal transduction pathway. Virology Journal, 15(1), 88.
  118. Yang, C., Hu, D. H., & Feng, Y. (2015). Antibacterial activity and mode of action of the Artemisia capillaris essential oil and its constituents against respiratory tract infection-causing pathogens. Molecular Medicine Reports, 11(4), 2852-2860.
  119. Yang, C., Hu, D. H., & Feng, Y. (2015). Essential oil of Artemisia vestita exhibits potent in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity: Investigation of the effect of oil on biofilm formation, leakage of potassium ions and survival curve measurement. Molecular Medicine Reports, 12(4), 5762-5770.
  120. Yang, L., Jiang, H., Wang, S., Hou, A., Man, W., Zhang, J., … & Wang, Q. (2020). Discovering the major antitussive, expectorant, and anti-inflammatory bioactive constituents in Tussilago farfara L. based on the spectrum–effect relationship combined with chemometrics. Molecules, 25(3), 620.
  121. Yang, Z. J., Deng, Y., Man, Q., Wang, Y., Yang, X. J., Zhao, N., & Liu, L. (2017). Effects of the fermentation products of endophytes from Glycyrrhiza uralensis on inflammation-associated factors and Aquaporin in rat models with phlegm blocking in lung. Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology, 33(5), 410-414.
  122. Yuan, C. B., Tian, L., Yang, B., & Zhou, H. Y. (2018). Isoalantolactone protects LPS-induced acute lung injury through Nrf2 activation. Microbial Pathogenesis, 123, 213-218.
  123. Yuksel, S., & Akyol, S. (2016). The consumption of propolis and royal jelly in preventing upper respiratory tract infections and as dietary supplementation in children. Journal of intercultural ethnopharmacology, 5(3), 308-311.
  124. Zeil, S., Schwanebeck, U., & Vogelberg, C. (2014). Tolerance and effect of an add-on treatment with a cough medicine containing ivy leaves dry extract on lung function in children with bronchial asthma. Phytomedicine, 21(10), 1216-1220.
  125. Zhang, A., Wang, D., Li, J., Gao, F., & Fan, X. (2017). The effect of aqueous extract of Xinjiang Artemisia rupestris L. (an influenza virus vaccine adjuvant) on enhancing immune responses and reducing antigen dose required for immunity. PloS One, 12(8), e0183720.
  126. Zhong, M., Wang, H., Ma, L., Yan, H., Wu, S., Gu, Z., & Li, Y. (2019). DMO-CAP inhibits influenza virus replication by activating heme oxygenase-1-mediated IFN response. Virology Journal, 16(1), 21.
  1. Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America. (2015). Rhinitis (nasal allergies). Retrieved from:
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (March, 2019). Clinical signs and symptoms of influenza. Retrieved from:
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (December, 2019). Cold versus flu. Retrieved from:
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (September, 2019). Flu Symptoms & Complications. Retrieved from:
  5. Jacobs, S. E., Lamson, D. M., George, K. S., & Walsh, T. J. (2013). Human rhinoviruses. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 26(1), 135-162.
  6. Merck Manuals (2020). Respiratory viruses. Retrieved from:
  7. Merck Manuals, & Delves, P. J. (2019). Seasonal allergies. Retrieved from:
  8. Merck Manuals, & Tesini, B. L. (2020). Common cold. Retrieved from:
  9. Merck Manuals, & Tesini, B. L. (2020). Influenza. Retrieved from:
  10. World Health Organization. (November 2018). Influenza (seasonal). Retrieved from:

Fullscript content philosophy

At Fullscript, we are committed to curating accurate, and reliable educational content for practitioners and patients alike. Our educational offerings cover a broad range of topics related to integrative medicine, such as supplement ingredients, diet, lifestyle, and health conditions.

Medically reviewed by expert practitioners and our internal Integrative Medical Advisory team, all Fullscript content adheres to the following guidelines:

  1. In order to provide unbiased and transparent education, information is based on a research review and obtained from trustworthy sources, such as peer-reviewed articles and government websites. All medical statements are linked to the original reference and all sources of information are disclosed within the article.
  2. Information about supplements is always based on ingredients. No specific products are mentioned or promoted within educational content.
  3. A strict policy against plagiarism is maintained; all our content is unique, curated by our team of writers and editors at Fullscript. Attribution to individual writers and editors is clearly stated in each article.
  4. Resources for patients are intended to be educational and do not replace the relationship between health practitioners and patients. In all content, we clearly recommend that readers refer back to their healthcare practitioners for all health-related questions.
  5. All content is updated on a regular basis to account for new research and industry trends, and the last update date is listed at the top of every article.
  6. Potential conflicts of interest are clearly disclosed.
Send this to a friend